cognition, affect, and readiness of action. Rather, it is varied and inconsistent for both the individual user and within and among groups of speakers who use the same language. The second is sociology or the study of the effect that language has on society. The data was collected through the language learning diaries during the program and was analyzed descriptively. Peace Sociolinguistics: A Constructivist Grounded Theory of Pakistani English Newspapers Shehr Bano Zaidi Assistant Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad Abstract This paper is a qualitative sociolinguistic study that theorizes the place of English as an official/second language in Pakistan. *Hymes, Dell. where English has been institutionalised as a second language, there is an attitudinal conflict between external and internal, reported greater use of Indian variety, i.e. The diction and vocabulary they, in educational institutions. Allport, G. W. 1935. When one pushes the other, it gets pushed back in an almost endless tug-of-war type fashion. Aware of the, diverse nature of the Indian society and traditional basis of the, local culture, East India Company adopted a policy of caution, 1770s. A, person’s impressions of the world are influenced by the. There are an estimated 400 million people who speak English as a first language and 7-800 million people who speak English as a second language. Very, few of them hold a certificate, diploma, or bachelors in, education. The second questionnaire measured. Part II is about the features of English that educated speakers consider the most likely and probable in Academic English. English in terms of (non-native) linguistic input, local norms, multiple identities, communicative competencies and. As, support of the argument, taken from Pakistan’s top-notch chain. A language teacher's role is not only critical in teaching a language, but also in teaching the cultures and societies that surround the language. * Although it may sound like an intimidating term that belongs to the academic realm (as I mentioned earlier), every language learner should have some awareness of sociolinguistics. Thus, teachers are obligated to provide their students with interesting and suitable texts to read. The target population of the study was tertiary level students of Lahore, Punjab (Pakistan) and the sample was the tertiary level students of a public sector women university of Lahore. Unconsciously, they follow. Das (2005) believes that, when social, status and prestige associate with a language, the language itself, starts enjoying the status of “elite” or “proletarian.” This “reflects, on how the imperialistic tendencies of past still cast a shadow on, 13) there are three components of attitude, i.e. amalgamated to give birth to yet another indigenous variety, i.e. Since then English has played a significant role in Pakistan. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Rather, it aims at proposing strategies that the teachers of English literature could adopt to improve reading skills of students. Heteronomy in international Engli. In this manner, a teacher can easily, are discussed without offending the reader (Raza 2011). There are several ways to develop your own sociolinguistic skill set. 1/249, 249-271. However, they do have some, element of readiness, which is due to the compulsory position of, the English language in all schools; so they are obliged to spend, different languages in the second Diaspora of the spread of, English e.g. It is used as a library language, as a medium of science, technology, and international trade, and as a contact language between nations and parts of nations. Available online: Developing some innovative strategies to teach reading. Part III describes the flexible and fluid features of English that might be susceptible to change or modification over time. 2006. Attitude towards English language in Pakistan. All four language skills, emphasized by Elliott (1981) and maximum genres and registers, are included in the syllabus and taught with zeal and zest. The natural outcome was that standard of English, language deteriorated and complaints about the standard of. 11 Mar 2013. West Africa, the Philippines, South Asia) is of linguistic, cultural, pedagogical and sociolinguistic interest. In Lee Su Kim, Thang Siew Ming, Gorlach, M. 1990. A few examples would be: Theoretically, there are two different approaches to the study of language and how it relates to society. 2. Doctoral dissertation. English is all of these things and more. Judd, E. L. 1981. An analysis of the literature coupled with the previous experience of the researcher helped devise certain strategies and activities that had the potential of improving reading and language skills without extensive use of audio-visual aids. Robert J. Baumgardner (1995) investigated the Pakistani, Islamabad, Karachi, and Lahore about their choice of a model of, English (British, American or Pakistani). In fact, linguist Dell Hymes, even goes so far as to argue that the two are not different. In the beginning of the twentieth century, with the spread of, institutions started teaching and examining all subjects in, vernaculars. in a slightly different manner. “Language meaning is obscured without some recognition of, cultural values” (Valdes 1986: 3, as cited in Raza 2011). It is also seen as a vestige of British colonialism and as an arm of American cultural imperialism. 3. Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. What goes on beyond the language when it is used. students, the community, the country and the wider world. Historically, much like in the field of anthropology, the more “exotic” cultures and languages were of primary interest to sociolinguists while “home” or Western languages remained largely unexplored and ignored. The grammar, the vocabulary, the pronunciation, and so on. Zubair, S. 2006. It draws on a range of real texts, data and examples, including articles from The New York Times, The Straits Times, and The Economist, emails, texts, and transcripts of speech. Teaching resources in such schools are scanty and of a, questionable quality (Abbas 1993). As we have seen, English in Pakistan today is envisaged as a. resource of power, prestige and esteem (Moss 1964; Haque 1983; Mahboob 2002; Abbas 1993). 1996. At the same, time, a Pakistani variety of English language has evolved. In the words of Hay & Qureshi (1958: 3, as cited in Rangila, Thirumalai & Mallikarjun 2001), “India in eighteenth century, was a land of strife with internal dissensions and devoid of any, central political power.” These circumstances paved the way to, traders under the flag of the East India Company. Majority of schools in urban areas have, moderate to good amount of resources “but the quality of these, materials is questionable” (Abbas 1993). Inherently, these people have fears that learning of English might, be a “new face of colonialism” (Krishnaswamy 1998, as cited in, Rana 2005) and that the social, cultural and linguistic gains from, a second language also result in some loss of certain aspects of, first language and culture. are used in teaching, and students don’t get access to resources. The, only viable approach to them is GTM (Grammar Translation, Method), which was introduced a century and a half ago, when, the aim was to enable students to read English and express their, Provincial Textbook Boards produce teaching materials. 1991. If an American learning Italian were to point during communication with an Italian, it might be considered rude and aggressive. The term depends on the field of the researcher; sociolinguistics is the term that connects linguistics with sociology while ethnolinguistics relates to anthropology and psycholinguistics to psychology. ——. The, 1992: 99-101), can be used to judge the reason why Pakistanis, have inherently deviated their focus from Standard English to, their own variety, though unconsciously. In result, it is nearly impossible to study one without learning about the other. So much of actual communication goes beyond just words and grammar, and without considering communication in its entirety, you’ll never really be “fluent” in another language. they were asked about the model they think they should follow, the results varied a lot: 61% favoured British English, 19% liked, American standard while only 12% wanted Pakistani English. When. View Assignment; 3.pptx from ENGLISH BSENG-353 at Hazara University, Dodhial, Mansehra. an integral part of English language syllabus. Pakistanis relish not only the use of old words but they, also feel free to invent and derive phrases like “abode of, (Talaat 2003: 25). This stratum of society is fully aware of the powers of, being multilingual so they develop a favourable attitude towards, English language for its aesthetic qualities (Edwards 2006) as, well. His own books include Language in Canada (Cambridge University Press, 1998), Multilingualism (Penguin, 1995), Language, Society and identity (Blackwell, 1985) and The Irish language (Garland, 1983). Thomas S.C. Farrell. The third sign is “value, have their own cultural forms and they regard themselves as, Pakistanis. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Muslims, hesitated to learn English language for some time. Their expressions are also influenced, by their first language (Talaat 2002). Last semester at Medgar Evers College, I was able to learn that language is more than just words. My name is Shannon Kennedy and I'm the language lover,…. Their only aim is to get, difficulty. It was only, after religious scholars like Shah Abdul Aziz (1746-1823), and, Nazir Ahamd (1830-1915) who gave religious decree that, learning of English language was not against Islam. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. English arrived with the colonisation of India by the British. This is how assessment and complete evaluation of importance of english language in education in Pakistan is carried out. The focus is on the American urban situation, especially as it relates to poor black children. Language policy, curriculum development, and. Each teaching method is based on a particular vision of understanding the language or the learning process, often using specific techniques and materials used in a set sequence.The main methodologies are listed below in the chronological order of their development: 1. The authors do not at all suggest that language learning should be underrated in English language classes; nor do they intend to rush the learner towards the apogee of success in every aspect of life overnight. One such attitude, endorsed by Prator, and represented by him as typically American, may be termed linguistic purism and linguistic intolerance-a pragmatically unrealistic attitude. In this particular case, the Académie’s efforts have seen mixed success and many English words are still prevalent in conversation: Walkman, mastering, and email are still used despite the existence of baladeur, masterisation, and courriel (or even courier électronique). An Exploration of Attitudes Towards the English, Curriculum in Educational Establishments in Urban and Rural, Sidhwa, B. It is added in … To identify the leading cause for problems in learning English as a second language. words (Gorlach 1991, as cited in Talaat 2003). The Gallop Survey (cited in, Abbas 1993) clearly states that “whenever and wherever any, section suffers due to the tyranny of alien English they do not, hesitate from expressing themselves against the system and the, language.” As such, they are antagonistic and sometimes exhibit, emotional detachment to English. The results show that 37% of Pakistanis think that, English while 32% think they speak Pakistani English. Lingu francas are languages used b wide groups of people to facilitate communication between cultures that traditionally use separate languages; English is the lingua franca of much of the world, as people from Sweden to China to Egypt learn it to facilitate international communication. Every language is used in different contexts, by different people, and for different reasons. Lower class people have their own fears and concerns. Models of English for The Third World: White Man's Linguistic Burden or Language Pragmatics? To present the ways to improve the declining condition of learning English as second language. In sociolinguistics class, we covered all the components that form language. The Development of the Survey of Technology Use, Teaching, and Technology-Related Learning Experiences among Pre-Service English Language Teachers in Indonesia DS Ciptaningrum Journal of Foreign Language Teaching and Learning 2 (2), 11-26 , 2017 ‘Teaching and Learning in Pakistan: The Role of Language In Education In Pakistan’ is a report by Hywel Coleman. Pakistani people appreciate new combinations, from Urdu.” The society of Pakistan is pluralist in the sense that, speaking of more than one language in considered as asset even, The attitude of the people of Pakistan has inherently, this change of attitude in the light of the Functional Theory. There is an acute dearth of audio-visual aids, which deprives teachers of the opportunity and motivation to improve their pedagogical techniques. Understanding that it is social by nature, allows you to more effective use your language. English language to defend Islam from European critics. In, Talaat, M. 2002. It is the effort to understand the way that social dynamics are affected by individual and/or group language use, variations in language and varying attitudes towards language. Available online: Learner autonomy refers to a state where a learner takes charge of the learning. In a recent study, it was, revealed that Pakistani students found Pakistani drama in English. The results indicated that there was no difference in the English language use anxiety scores and the collectivist/individualist nature of the student's cultural orientation. Lord Macaulay had basically laid the, foundation of linguistic imperialism of the English language in, India – as all education, according to Phillipson (1992), in a, language other than the mother tongue of a child is linguistic, imperialism, even if the motive happens to be to help the student. Thankfully, this practice is changing and materials on and studies of Western languages are becoming more commonplace. In our review, we did not come across any study that provided a profile of English language teachers in Pakistan. Pakistan has, been the recipient of two varieties of English language – British, and American. Although Urdu is the national language, the influence of English continues to be very strong. 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