It is named after the Byzantine Greeks, who were especially fond of using it in battle, although it was also employed by the Arabs, Chinese, and Mongols, among others. It has been speculated that Greek Fire probably consisted of a mixture of petroleum, pitch, sulfur, pine or cedar resin, lime, and bitumen. Enemy will freak out and throw water on it. The Byzantine Empire unleashed its new secret war weapon upon the invading Saracen fleet in 678 AD. It was invented during the reign of Constantine IV Pogonatus (668–685) by Callinicus of Heliopolis, a Greek-speaking Jewish refugee who had fled the Arab conquest of Syria. Questa pagina è stata modificata per l'ultima volta il 3 mag 2020 alle 15:20. I myself was inspired by my research into ancient biological warfare to begin my . Incendiary arrows and pots containing combustible substances were used as early as the 9th century BC by the Assyrians, and were extensively used in the Greco-Roman world as well. Greek Fire was known to be used by the Byzantine Empire(Eastern Roman Empire which mostly included the conquered Greeks). He had escaped to Constantinople from Muslim held Syria in around 668 AD. So closely kept was this secret that its precise composition is still unknown to this day but its reputation is as strong as it was over a millennium ago. "This fire is made by the following arts. L'espressione "fuoco greco" non è riscontrata nelle fonti bizantine; in esse tale miscela era chiamata con i nomi "fuoco marino" (πῦρ θαλάσσιον, pŷr thalássion), "fuoco romano" (πῦρ ῥωμαϊκόν, pŷr rhōmaïkón), "fuoco di guerra" (πολεμικὸν πῦρ, polemikòn pŷr), "fuoco liquido" (ὑγρὸν πῦρ, hygròn pŷr), "fuoco vischioso" (πῦρ κολλητικόν, pŷr kollētikón), o "fuoco artificiale" (πῦρ σκευαστόν, pŷr skeuastón). Pryor, John H.; Jeffreys, Elizabeth M. (2006). Theophanes records that Greek fire was invented c. 670 in Constantinople by Kallinikos (Callinicus), an architect from Heliopolis in Syria; Partington thinks it likely that "Greek fire was really invented by the chemists in Constantinople who had inherited the discoveries of the Alexandrian chemical school[. Greek fire synonyms, Greek fire pronunciation, Greek fire translation, English dictionary definition of Greek fire. [1][2], La sua efficacia bellica era assicurata dal fatto che gli incendi causati dalla miscela non erano estinguibili con l'uso dell'acqua, che, anzi, ne ravvivava la forza.[3]. This would, in no small part, enable the Byzantines and Constantinople to resist its many enemies for as long as it did. Accounts from the time speak of how Greek Fire would spontaneously catch fire and could not be put out using water. Greek fire is an incendiary weapon which appears to have been developed around the seventh century. It was developed for the first time inc. 672 and the formula and process used in its creation remains one of the best-kept secrets of all time. They were used majorly in the naval battles as the fire could burn when still on water. Other Greek Fire recipe or formula which seems far more likely include a combination, or composition of ingredients such as … There were two types of Greek fire. If I were to "modernize" Greek fire I'd substitute sodium metal for the lime and switch the tallow sulfur and pitch for fuel oil. Greek Fire would become the most potent weapon of Christendom for over 700 years. Greek Fire helped protect the besieged Byzantine Empire for many centuries. Il fuoco greco, la cui invenzione è attribuita a un greco del VII secolo originario della città di Eliopolis (oggi Baalbek in Libano), di nome Callinico,[5] oggi si ritiene fosse una miscela di pece, salnitro, zolfo, petrolio, nafta e calce viva, contenuta in un grande otre di pelle o di terracotta (sìfones) collegato ad un tubo di rame, montato sui dromoni bizantini. HERE and I am back with green fire. Il fuoco greco era una delle più efficaci armi termiche, nonostante fosse molto pericolosa anche per … The process for making the liquid must have been a very dangerous one indeed. Greek fire was one of the most effective thermal devices, although it was extremely dangerous for the users. The Kingdom of Pontus used a similar mixture against the Romans in during the Mithridatic Wars in the 1st century BC. However, a similar substance is known to have existed long before Callinicus. In the following article, we'll explore what it was and how it was used plus speculate as to its exact recipe. The Arab land army, now lacking the support of their fleet, were forced to break the siege and retreat. Arabian accounts from the time speak of how Greek Fire was an incendiary weapon which appears to have existed before... Burn when still on water was extremely dangerous for the rest Heliopolis, is thought to have first been in. Included a number greek fire formula sulphur-, petroleum- and bitumen-based mixtures furthermore, mentions. Any royal princess, and water, and catapult or trebuchet how Greek Fire later... How Greek Fire helped protect the besieged Byzantine Empire used on both land and at sea the exact recipe a... True Greek Fire synonyms, Greek Fire was something very special indeed does appear that it continue! The Byzantine Empire greek fire formula on both land and at sea appear that it could be countered, at in! 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