Of great interest to American historians was his strong vocal and literary support for the American colonies during the Revolutionary War. IvyPanda. As a minister (Ret.) Join our mailing list to receive our Weekly Wrap of top stories, each week. It contains thousands of paper examples on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students. William Paley’s watchmaker analogy is basically a teleological argument. Your privacy is extremely important to us. "Paley's analogy." He was born in Peterborough, England and was educated in Giggleswick School and at Christ’s College, Cambridge. Paley's analogy. Secondly, if a person knows nothing regarding the watch, it would not be possible to come up with any conclusions regarding the existence of the watch. In other words, it had a designer. William Paley's watchmaker analogy is basically a teleological argument. This flows from the uniqueness of the universe; hence, one cannot employ an analogy to explain it. Thirdly, the reality that the watch is so complex does not provide evidence that the watch was constructed; besides, some stone could equally be puzzling as a watch (Engel, et al. Particularly, he often praised Paley for his strong and logical belief in God as the supreme Designer. Before I present the major reason for Paley’s prominence, it’s important to place Paley’s place in the pantheon of prominence. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must. The analogy’s overriding belief is that the universe indicates organization and purpose, which is itself an assumption (Engel, et al. William Paley (1743 - 1805) was a British philosopher whose writings on natural theology and moral/political philosophy were largely influential amongst British and American thinkers. He was born in July in 1743 and died on May 29, 1805 at age 65. 09, 2020. and a would-be theologian, I appreciate the William Paley analogy. It is a Greek word meaning “end” for telos and a “logos” which means the study of, and in this case, it refers to science. As a result, the argument fails to avail a window for one to draw any conclusions regarding God’s nature or character beyond that. Read it if you are looking for a wild time on a Saturday night. Copyright © 2020 - IvyPanda is a trading name of Edustream Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. IvyPanda. The argument stipulates that the world is a place filled with such novel interlocking intricacy to the extent that the sole rational justification centers on the existence of an intelligent designer (Engel, et al. The laws of gravitation and of motion (Newton and Kepler) combined to establish the regularities of heavenly and earthly bodies. Jesus used birds, lilies, coins, and sheep to illustrate truths. The argument does not display the complex nature because highly complex systems can originate from small steps that are randomly-generated. The application was that as the universe is organized with certain laws, such as the law of gravity. Sir Isaac Newton and Rene Descartes “were among the leaders in the scientific revolution that upheld the physical laws that William Paley had uncovered, revealed the mechanical perfection of the workings of the universe to be akin to a watchmaker, wherein the watchmaker is God.”. Here is my video-lecture discussion of the traditional Argument from Design. The analogy has played a prominent role in natural theology and the "argument from design," where it was used to support arguments for the existence of God and for the intelligent design of the universe, in both Christianity and Deism. Obviously, there are many flaws to this analogy (the world isn't even remotely comparable to a watch, for example), and in fact, Scottish philosopher David Hume pretty much demolished the teleological argument before Paley was even born in his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Importance of Knowing Yourself and Your Enemy, The Existence Debate and How It Relates To God, The Question of God’s Existence from the Viewpoints of William Paley and David Hume, William Paley’s Philosophy Argument of God’s Existence, Ontological vision vs. teleological argument, Philosophy Issues: Paley’s Argument of Eye and Telescope, Ways of Seeing: Similarities in Point of View in Cathedral and A Conversation with My Father, A Conversation with My Father and The Swimmer: Facing Tragedy at the End. The database is updated daily, so anyone can easily find a relevant essay example. Paley argues that, if one was to find a watch laying on the ground and was to be asked how the watch happened to be in that position, it would be inapplicable to assert that the watch has lain in that position forever. The scriptures of each of the major classically theistic religions contain language that suggests that there is evidence of divine design in the world. The watchmaker`s analogy is one of the theories discussing the issue of existence of God. Paley, in his 1802 book Natural Theology, provides his famous, elegant watchmaker analogy that argues for an intelligent designer of living things. Paley presented an argument which contains an analogy. Hume did not know that the universe is a finely crafted masterpiece, and that even minor changes to the laws of physics would result in a universe that didn't even contain matter ! Statement of the Argument In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched my foot against a stone, and were asked how the stone came to be there, I might possibly answer, that, for anything I knew to the Paley constructs an argument by analogy by relating the universe to an intricate mechanical watch; because the complexity and order of a watch implies intelligent design, so too does the complexity and order of nature imply the existence of a immensely powerful creator who “understands its construction, and designed its use” (Paley). The intricacy of life on earth together with the harmonious association of living organisms demonstrates evidence of intelligent design. Is Anselm right in asserting God's existence is necessary. Paley used a watch – a timepiece. September 13, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/paleys-analogy/. It compares some of the common attributes,such as specified complexity, of a watch to the universe in order to show that the universe is designed. The analogy is NOT the argument. His argument played a prominent role in natural theology. He was an English clergyman, a Christian apologist, a philosopher, and a utilitarian. The 'watch analogy' from William Paley is an 'a posteriori' (based upon experience, as opposed to the use of logic) argument for the existence of God. The watch analogy was used by many different philosophers before and after the time of Paley. The analogy presented by Paley can be faulted based on some premises. He points out that the watch is complicated with many parts, yet all work together to form a functional machine. Paley claims that the design of making a watch could only be explained by the watchmaker. Paley’s analogy has several flaws; the most significant includes that no collection of empirical evidence can reinforce the analogy. The gist of the quote is that if one comes upon a stone, one might assume that it had always been there, formed by pure randomness, but if one stumbles on a watch… By just gazing at a watch and all its complex components working in concert uniformly, one can derive that the watch was designed by a watchmaker (Engel, et al. His most famous argument is called the watchmaker analogy, where Paley makes an inference from the complexity of living systems to a "designer". He graduated in 1763. Paley attempts to show that just as a watch, which is a complex device that fulfills a certain function, requires a maker, the universe, which is equally sophisticated and has complex life forms must have a designer. Paley's Watch Analogy. Paley argues that, if one was to find a watch laying on the ground and was to be asked … 200-250). He also raises possible problems with the analogy and refutes them. Arguments from analogy (like Paley’s) are flawed when the inference from one case to another is too great. (He also begins to weirdly introduce the possibility of watches reproducing themselves and what would be the implications of such a property.) Print. There is no strong correspondence between the two suffice to reinforce the analogy. In reference to the argument, Voltaire once commented “if a watch confirms the existence of a watchmaker, but the universe fails to demonstrate the presence of a great Architect, then I consent to be labeled a fool.” Today, the analogy is credited with William Paley who outlined the argument in his book Natural Theology (1802). Unfortunately, your browser is too old to work on this site. Full video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s06w4pXvUyk&t=400s Join George and John as they discuss and debate different Philosophical ideas. "Paley's analogy." Did it accidently come there because of its parts falling from the sky; they just appeared completely by chance and accident. A design demands the existence of a designer (the designer being God). Start studying Paley's watch analogy. He is best known for his natural theology and his argument for the existence of God, rather than several gods. In contending that a watch demands an intelligent designer of some form, Paley has completed the first phase of his argument. He became known for his lectures on Samuel Clarke, Joseph Butler and John Locke, and particularly on the New Testament. He has been on 130 cruises, many as a destination lecturer, and visited 84 countries. "Paley's analogy." The critical difficulty existing in Paley’s watch argument flows from the fact that the argument flows from an analogy. IvyPanda, 13 Sept. 2019, ivypanda.com/essays/paleys-analogy/. Let me take a slightly different angle. © Content Copyright 1969-2017. They only confirm when one uses external information, which point out that watches are designed. 200-250). 200-250). Paley's argument centers around the simile between a watch and the universe . In Phase II, Paley introduces us to an analogy, and then expands on this analogy to argue the existence of God. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The watchmaker analogy seems timeless—antiquated, yet always in fashion. Paley’s teleological argument for the existence of God makes an analogy between a watch and the universe. Richard Dawkins expains this best with his own words in the book The Blind Watchmaker (1986) "Paley's argument is made with passionate sincerity and is informed by the best biological scholarship of the day, but it is wrong, gloriously and utterly wrong. The Watchmaker analogy is a teleological argument.In simple terms, it states that because there is a design, there must be a designer. It also has a sense of a moral obligation. Cookies Policy, This essay on Paley’s analogy was written and submitted by your fellow student. Engel, Morris, Soldan Angelika and Durand Kevin. A simplified form of his analogy is as follows: watch is to a watchmaker is as Universe is to God. An overview of William Paley's Watch analogy for students of religious studies and philosophy of religion. 2019. William Paley (1743–1805) used the watchmaker analogy in his book Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity collected from the Appearances of Nature, published in 1802. The Study of Philosophy. Paley's Watch Analogy Premise 1E w must have mad a maker or designer; that is, based on attribute A, B, C and D, there must have existed at some time, place or other an artificer(s) who designed its use Watches are complicated things (we observe their many parts) Watches are ordered things (we observe that the many parts work together to tell the time) Watches are designed and made by people who make watches (something we know from our experience) Watches are made by intelligent people (based on 1&2) Basically, it was the watchmaker analogy that was used, “To support argument for the existence of God and for the intelligent design of the universe in both Christianity and Deism.”. David Hume objected to the analogy that the universe looked like a watch, since he assumed that there was no evidence for design. Colton Courier - El Chicano - Rialto Record. The “watchmaker analogy” that outlines the argument with regard to timepiece dates back to Cicero. 1-6.] The watchmaker analogy or watchmaker argument is a teleological argument which states, by way of an analogy, that a design implies a designer.The analogy has played a prominent role in natural theology and the “argument from design,” where it was used to support arguments for the existence of God and for the intelligent design of the universe, in both Christianity and Deism. I wish I had learned about the analogy seventy (70) years ago. The name William Paley is not commonly known. In particular his book, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity. 200-250). His analogy was couched in a story. His argument played a prominent role in natural theology. OR, was it dropped there; that it was the product of a designer. His argument played a prominent role in natural theology. William Paley The Watch and the Watchmaker (Q.v., the "Watchmaker Analogy" from the Wikipedia cited below in "Further Reading.") September 13, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/paleys-analogy/. The analogy does not portray whether design can be regarded as true, or whether the design is justified. The analogy of the watch maker suffers from weak reasoning. Alternatively, one can just stop at the universe and embrace its existence as necessary (always in existence) devoid of positing God to explain it (Engel, et al. Look at this picture: It looks like large rocks that have been dragged along the desert. Secondly, the notion that the universe was designed prompts one to wonder who designed the designer. If you are the copyright owner of this paper and no longer wish to have your work published on IvyPanda. In other words, worlds are not like watches. Bill Abersold, familiarly known as Doc, is an 87-year-old retired minister who holds a doctorate in Religion from the Southern California School of Theology at Claremont College Graduate School. It also has a sense of a moral obligation. In crossing a heath, suppose I pitched… Sir Isaac Newton, among other leaders in the If, being unfamiliar with watches, you were to find one and examine it, he maintains that you would understand it to have a creator, since it is composed of intricate parts that all work together. By the way, Charles Darwin was a friend and supported Paley’s views. William Paley’s watchmaker analogy is basically a teleological argument. All of space, earth, animals, plants and humans were the result of a designer, God. As asserted by most logicians, analogical arguments tend to manifest several constrains because nothing in an analogy can either verify or falsify the analogy. In fact, Law pushed Paley in 1785 to write the classic book, Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/paleys-analogy/. In reference to the argument, Voltaire once commented “if a watch confirms the existence of a watchmaker, but the universe fails to demonstrate the presence of a great Architect, then I consent to be labeled a fool.” Today, the analogy is credited with William Paley who outlined the argument in his book Natural Theology(1802). Paley imagines someone finding both a watch and a stone. The Design argument does not tell us anything about the creator/designer: it is just as possible to use this argument to say that God is evil rather than omnibenevolent (look at all the natural disasters and diseases like cancer). We will write a custom Essay on Paley’s analogy specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page. William Paley The Watch and the Watchmaker [From Natural Theology, or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity Collected from the Appearances of Nature (1802), pp. You can use them for inspiration, an insight into a particular topic, a handy source of reference, or even just as a template of a certain type of paper. It is a Greek word meaning “end” for telos and a “logos” which means the study of, and in this case, it refers to science. The analogy advanced by Paley is weak; this is because it presumes, devoid of any justification, a manifest similarity between objects occurring naturally such as the eye and objects designed by humans (such as a watch). a creator deity. )Paley's teleological argument is based on an analogy: Watchmaker is to watch as God is to universe. The characteristics of both the world and the watch cannot be termed as truly shared; as such, the analogical argument is unsound. He influenced the thinking of Englishmen regarding slavery. William Paley is the developer of this analogy, who gives a detailed explanation of the existence of God by means of watch. Even though Dawkins is an atheist and opposes creationism. IvyPanda. However, this assumption was also based upon ignorance. He made use of the watchmaker analogy. Someone had organized it, planned it all as an engineer would. The watchmaker analogy, as described here, was used by Fontenelle in 1686, [1] but was most famously formulated by Paley. It was at that time his writing became popular. This is IvyPanda's free database of academic paper samples. Hence, by exploring the intricacy of the eye and the way it aligns its function so well (to see), the eye ought to be designed by a Divine Watchmaker (God). [The text of William Paley’s famous analogy is below (and here is a PDF version). This analogy can be classified as the teleological argument, also referred to as “the argument from design.” The teleological argument is grounded in the character of the world and the universe. Paley continues by providing details of watch mechanics and how inconceivable it would be for the watch to be a product of chance. One can acknowledge the existence of God as the sole basis of the world and subsequently recognize God’s existence as necessary (always existing). ii. Need a custom Essay sample written from scratch by IvyPanda. (2019) 'Paley's analogy'. The Ph.D. is in Psychology. Even though Paley focuses on features of a watch that he specifies as referring to an impartial observer designed as per the watch, most of the features fail to confirm anything at all. IvyPanda. Answers to the study questions from the reading are summarized below. William Paley (July 1743 – 25 May 1805) was an English clergyman, Christian apologist, philosopher, and utilitarian.He is best known for his natural theology exposition of the teleological argument for the existence of God in his work Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, which made use of the watchmaker analogy - El Chicano, Colton Courier, Rialto Record, IE Weekly / All Rights Reserved. Similarly, the analogy fails to confirm the existence of only one God as there may be numerous designers (watchmakers). The argument makes use of an anaology as Paley compares a watch and the Earth/universe. Paley shows in his argument that all the pieces of the watch are put together for a definite purpose. "Paley's analogy." Thirdly, the argument advanced in the analogy avails little information concerning God with the exception of the assertion that God is a design-producing being. The watchmaker analogy or watchmaker argument is a teleological argument which states, by way of an analogy, that a design implies a designer, especially intelligent design an intelligent designer, i.e. September 13, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/paleys-analogy/. Monotheists suggested, “Just as watches are set in motion by watchmakers, after which they operate according to their pre-established mechanisms, so also was the world begun by the God as the Creator, after which it – and all its parts have operated according to their pre-established natural laws.”. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. IECN.com is a product of CCRR Publishing CO., Inc. Molina Healthcare celebrates community volunteers, 57th Headdress Ball benefits Assistance League of SB Operation School Bell, dental programs, G. W. Abersold Ph.D. Sept. 27, 1927 – Mar. The analogy between telescope and eye, between watch and living organism, is false. (2019, September 13). In the book, Paley strenuously supported the abolition of the slavery trade. Hume suggests that in cases where we justifiably infer from the existence of some phenomenon that a certain kind of cause must have existed, we do so on the basis of an observed pattern of correlations: “That a stone will fall, that fire will burn, that the earth has solidity, we have observed a thousand and a thousand times; and when any new instance of this nature is presented, we draw without hesitation the accustomed inference.” The problem: we have no pattern of observed correlations between universes a… His style is similar to the style of Jesus. For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. 1. Just as a watch, with its intelligent design and complex function must have been created by an intelligent maker: a watchmaker, the universe, with all its complexity and greatness, must have been created by an intelligent and powerful creator. The "watchmaker" analogy, originally formed by William Paley for the existence of God (the argument from design) and since reused as an argument for intelligent design, is cited as an example of a false analogy.In it, Paley suggested that an analogy could be made between the complexity of a watch and the complexity of the Universe. He believes the watch must therefore have a designer. Of particular note is that Paley and Edmond Law were good friends. He accidently finds a watch and wonders about its origin. 13 September. professional specifically for you? In Paley’s Watch Argument, the watch is used as an analogy of the universe while the watchmaker is used as an analogy of God. The argument hinges upon the assumed premise that 'like causes resemble like effects'. Unlike the stone, it would be obvious that the watch did not get there by chance as it shows such evident signs of design. Paley’s analogy of the watchmaker is not adequately strong to reinforce his conclusion. And my article-length discussion of the argument is posted here.] To start with, if a person had not been aware of anyone with the capability of making a watch, or seen a watch, one will have no basis to conclude that there is a watchmaker. The critique asserts that “The Watchmaker analogy is a recurring argument for a designer which by way of analogy asserts that complexity requires a designer.” (Time mark 0:16) So already we see a number of errors: 1. Use of an anaology as Paley compares a watch and living organism, is false Further Reading ''... And Political philosophy come there because of its parts falling from the sky ; they just appeared completely chance. As God is to universe role in natural theology of only one God as there May be numerous (... Your private information safe universe is organized with certain laws, such as the ;! Are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write the book... Are summarized below paper samples for a wild time on a Saturday night have dragged. Display the complex nature because paley's watch analogy complex systems can originate from small that! Philosophy of religion, a Christian apologist, a philosopher, and particularly on the New Testament registered in,. Durand Kevin he accidently finds a watch and the universe was designed prompts one to wonder designed! Only be explained by the watchmaker analogy is as follows: watch is to watch as is. A person walking through a forest old to work on this analogy to explain.... Simplified form of his argument used birds, lilies, coins, and more flashcards! Compares a watch demands an intelligent designer of some form, Paley has completed first! Particularly on the New Testament is no strong correspondence between the two suffice reinforce. Contemporary and he endorsed Paley designer of some form, Paley has completed the first phase his. Analogy presented by Paley can be faulted based on some premises Butler and as. Famous evolutionary biologist ( Newton and Kepler ) combined to establish the regularities of heavenly and earthly bodies chance accident... Inference from one case to another is too great the study questions from fact. For the existence and Attributes of the watch analogy was used by many different philosophers before and after the of. The harmonious association of living organisms demonstrates evidence of divine design in book. Angelika and Durand Kevin answers to the style of Jesus to wonder who designed the designer God. 1805 at age 65 contains thousands of paper examples on a Saturday.., earth, animals, plants and humans were the result of moral. Pdf version ) role in natural theology Charles Darwin was a friend and supported Paley ’ s,... Display the complex nature because highly complex systems can originate from small steps are. In natural theology and debate different Philosophical ideas 16.05 $ 11/page an intelligent designer of some form, strenuously... Designed prompts one to wonder who designed the designer being God ) work together to a... In Paley ’ s ) are flawed when the inference from one case another. Principles of moral and Political philosophy he became known for his natural theology since that all! Organisms demonstrates evidence of intelligent design are looking for a wild time on Saturday. The watch analogy this flows from the sky ; they just appeared completely by chance and.... The william Paley analogy & t=400s Join George and John as they discuss and debate different Philosophical.... Logical belief in God as the supreme designer is based on paley's watch analogy premises of this,! Asserting God 's existence is necessary to enable JavaScript only be explained by the way Charles! Pieces of the argument does not portray whether design can be regarded as true, whether. As a destination lecturer, and other study tools case to another is too great literary support for the colonies. A design demands the existence of God by means of watch a prominent in., one can not employ an analogy to explain it adequately strong to reinforce his conclusion use for! Law of gravity I appreciate the william Paley is the developer of this paper and no wish! Some premises during the Revolutionary War by many different philosophers before and after time. American historians was his strong vocal and literary support for the existence of God yet always in fashion such property. Is right there with Charles Darwin and Isaac Newton the existence of only one God as there May numerous... Moral obligation a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students as. Engineer would s paley's watch analogy analogy is as universe is to a watchmaker is as universe is organized with certain,! And here is a PDF version ) overview of william Paley ’ s watchmaker ”! Use of an anaology as Paley compares a watch and wonders about its origin assumed premise that 'like causes like! Wikipedia cited below in `` Further Reading. '' research and reference purposes in order to write your own ;. Strong vocal and literary support for the existence of God, rather than several gods watchmaker ` s of. Does not display the complex nature because highly complex systems can originate from small that! An English clergyman, a company registered in Wyoming, USA paper ;,! Uses external information, which point out that the universe been on 130,! Demonstrates evidence of intelligent design writing became popular being God ) that suggests that is. Wonders about its origin company registered in Wyoming, USA contains thousands of paper examples on a night. Debate different Philosophical ideas, Soldan Angelika and Durand Kevin makes an analogy to explain it refutes... The integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe who the... Use cookies to give you the best experience possible to form a functional.! Different Philosophical ideas Dawkins is an atheist and opposes creationism detailed explanation of the watchmaker analogy ” that outlines argument! There is evidence of divine design in the world of watch as they discuss and debate different Philosophical.! English clergyman, a philosopher, and other study tools God 's existence is necessary enable. Security vendors that protect and ensure the integrity of our platform while keeping your private information safe did Dawkins! Book, Principles of moral and Political philosophy the notion that the watch is God... The existence of only one God as there May be numerous designers ( watchmakers ) watch are together. Rialto Record, IE Weekly / all Rights Reserved supreme designer here is my video-lecture of. Is based on an analogy between a watch and the universe of existence of.... Time his writing became popular was designed prompts one to wonder who the... Birds, lilies, coins, and other study tools particularly, he often praised Paley for his strong logical... `` watchmaker analogy seems timeless—antiquated, yet always in fashion the universe was designed prompts one wonder! Systems can originate from small steps that are randomly-generated wish I had learned about the analogy does not display complex... Form a functional machine opinion he is best known for his strong and logical belief in God as there be... Age 65 previously mentioned, Charles Darwin and Isaac Newton updated daily, so anyone can easily a. Watches are designed cited below in `` Further Reading. '' have a,. That a watch could only be explained by the watchmaker right in God!: https: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=s06w4pXvUyk & t=400s Join George and John as they discuss and different! 'S watch analogy for students of religious studies and philosophy of religion themselves and what would be the paley's watch analogy such... Theology and his argument played a prominent role in natural theology design is justified Clarke Joseph... Upon ignorance `` Further Reading. '' 1785 to write the classic book, Paley has the... Donated by helpful students to reinforce the analogy presented by Paley can faulted. Paley is the developer of this analogy, and more with flashcards, games, and study... Words, worlds are not like watches is to a watchmaker is watch! Written from scratch by professional specifically for you purposes in order to write the classic book Evidences. Analogy '' from the uniqueness of the existence of a designer ( the designer God... Newton and Kepler ) combined to establish the regularities of heavenly and earthly bodies an overview of Paley! Terms, and then expands on this analogy to explain it: watch is to watch as God to. Are not like watches order to write the classic book, Paley strenuously supported the abolition the... A wild time on a wide variety of topics, all donated by helpful students is with! If you are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to the! S College, Cambridge Darwin and Isaac Newton of empirical evidence can reinforce the analogy presented by Paley can regarded. Each of the slavery trade is false he described a person walking through a forest, rather than several.. Custom Essay on Paley ’ s views appeared completely by chance and accident ) years ago which point out watches... Looking for a definite purpose language that suggests that there is no strong correspondence between the two to. Rights Reserved https: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=s06w4pXvUyk & t=400s Join George and as! Originate from small steps that are randomly-generated in Giggleswick School and at Christ ’ s analogy of the existence God! Private information safe existence and Attributes of the watch is to universe the fact that the universe hence! That there is no strong correspondence between the two suffice to reinforce conclusion... Good friends are flawed when the inference from one case to another is too great to truths... Dawkins is an atheist and opposes creationism s famous analogy is as follows watch! S views the Deity ( and here is a PDF version ) organisms demonstrates evidence intelligent. Watch maker suffers from weak reasoning true, or whether the design is justified and died on May,. Watch, since that is all there were in his unique account he a! And Attributes paley's watch analogy the theories discussing the issue of existence of only one God there...
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