First, a perfect Bessel beam does not diffract, which means a light sheet formed by a Bessel beam will only spread out minimally and retain its initial thickness. . This SIMview setup obliterates the need for time-consuming sample rotation. Zebra jaw bone in Resin, Supernatural : Fossil Series. . Does the male or female zebra have pointed canine teeth?, True or False Grevy Zebras live in the plains of Africa?, Do Grevy Zebras stay in herds or stay by themselves?, Is there breeding September through April or May through August? Second-generation microscopy is a visualization technique that has many, although not yet fully explored, advantages compared with fluorescence-based microscopy methods. Zebrafish lines that express GFP under the control of the promoter of a gene that is functional in the process of tooth formation may have the disadvantage that they cannot be used in combination with certain treatments. All these teeth end evenly, so that the zebra can easily clip grass. Fishnet: an online 3D database of zebrafish larval anatomy. They are more developed in mammals. When choosing a genetically encoded fluorophore, criteria that have to be kept in mind are the molecular brightness of the fluorophore, the expression and folding of the protein in vivo, the photostability, the risk of oligomerization and toxicity of the fluorophore, and the sensitivity of the fluorophore to environmental factors, such as the pH of the cell.48 While TPEF microscopy has been used to a great extent in, for example, neuronal research (e.g. (C) Frontal virtual section of 5 dpf phosphotungstic acid stained zebrafish, reprinted by permission from Metscher.27 Pasco-Viel E, Charles C, Chevret P, Semon M, Tafforeau P, Viriot L, et al. For example, iodine potassium iodide after formalin fixation gave good soft tissue contrast in fry of Esox lucius (Fig. There are many straightforward ways to image hard tissues (dentine and enamel or enameloid) in the dentition but visualizing changes in soft tissue architecture, such as the formation of the successional lamina or the bi-layered bell-shaped structure, without relying on conventional histological methods, is much more difficult. M.A. Most carnivores have long, sharp teeth adapted to ripping, tearing or cutting flesh. The Artiodactyla is an order from the Mammalia class. Using this setup, the heart of a 5.4-day-old zebrafish was imaged at a cellular resolution and a speed of 70 frames/s.60, Another way to enable better resolution at greater imaging depth is the use of Bessel beam illumination. In vivo imaging of teeth offers two major advantages: (1) It allows the process of tooth replacement to be monitored over time within a single individual, and (2) it reduces the number of fish that have to be sacrificed, which is largely preferred from an ethical perspective. The axial resolution in light sheet microscopy is determined by the thickness of the light sheet and is theoretically better than in TPEF microscopy.56, Currently, a lot of research has elaborated on the possibilities of light sheet microscopy. Improving the world, one smile at a time. The setup was used to record 80% of the neurons in the brain of a 5-day-old GCaMP5G zebrafish line at single cell resolution.59 The entire larval zebrafish brain, covering a volume of 800×600×200 μm, was imaged in approximately 1.3 s. In addition, light sheet microscopy has been combined with two-photon fluorescence (2P-SPIM) to extend the imaging depth of one-photon light sheet microscopy by a factor of two.58,60 Furthermore, the axial resolution of 2P-SPIM achieved at higher imaging depth is superior to both one-photon light sheet and two photon laser scanning microscopy (2P-LSM) but at greater imaging depth the lateral resolution of 2P-LSM is better than that of 2P-SPIM. Expression of Dlx genes during the development of the zebrafish pharyngeal dentition: evolutionary implications. The end of winter is a peak period of mortality for many species, and skulls can be found virtually anywhere, but skull identification can be difficult. FishFace: interactive atlas of zebrafish craniofacial development at cellular resolution, Multilayer mounting for long-term light sheet microscopy of zebrafish, Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. Figure 4C presents a preliminary attempt to obtain an in vivo view of the ventral tooth row of a 29-day-old zebrafish at a depth of 500 μm using SHG microscopy. Visualizing the dentition of 1-month-old zebrafish at a resolution spanning from tissues to cellular details, thus, inevitably poses problems, related first and foremost to the size of the tissue sample, which imposes limitations onto the choice of visualization technique. A solution of phosphotungstic acid in ethanol after Bouin's fixation gives good contrast in muscles, nervous tissues, and collagen-rich tissues (Fig. 1Evolutionary Developmental Biology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium. Davit-Beal T, Chisaka H, Delgado S, Sire JY. Since the probability that two photons are interacting with the same molecule at the same time is very small, high-power, pulsed lasers must be used as the source of excitation. (B) Transverse virtual section of formalin-fixed and iodine potassium iodide-stained Esox lucius fry, reprinted by permission from Metscher.27 25 baby zebra clipart on PN cliparts. Website: www.artisansupplies.com.au Physical Address Mercorne, ZI, 48300 Langogne, France, Tell: (02) 9648 5856 Replacement teeth that have not reached the cytodifferentiation stage are, thus, not detected. First established in 2002, OPT circumvents the limitations imposed by the thickness of the sample in conventional optical microscopy by rotating the sample embedded in a cilinder of agarose while held in position for imaging by a microscope.30 In this way, high-resolution 3D images can be produced of fluorescent and non-fluorescent samples with a thickness of approximately 15 mm. It has been suggested that zebras are polyphyletic and that striped equids evolved more than once. 1B). Email: jantz@jantzusa.com However, hypermineralized tissues such as enamel or enameloid do not take up the stain. B.B. . Tissue samples used for OPT imaging must, however, be made optically transparent. Wu P, Wu XS, Jiang TX, Elsey RM, Temple BL, Divers SJ, et al. In the Alizarin complexone form, Alizarin red can also be used for in vivo staining (Fig. Bart Bruneel, Markus Mathä, [...], and Ann Huysseune. Grow up with smiling! For the zebra, they have many molars to grind up the grass it eats. Fish were sedated with 0.016% MS-222 and recovered completely after 20 min of measurements. Baboon used his speed and his huge canine teeth, while Zebra utilised his teeth and sharp hooves. Bessel beams have two characteristics that make them suitable for deep imaging. Smiles. would like to thank Lukas Reissig for his helpful comments. The Center for X-ray Tomography of Ghent University and Prof. Dr. D. Adriaens are kindly thanked for their permission to use the micro-CT figure. All animals have teeth that are adapted to eating certain types of food. The nanoprobes could also be fused to antibodies, resulting in SHG-based visualization of immunostains. (E) Preservation of tissue morphology and histology in Alizarin red-stained zebrafish, 13 dpf specimen was subjected to the same staining procedure as the specimen in (C) and (D), decalcified, embedded in epon, and sectioned, asterisks indicate teeth, scale bar: 50 μm. Carnivorous animals subsist on the flesh, bones, and viscera of other creatures. The shape of the teeth are determined by what the animal eats. SHG method is outlined in the Supplementary Methods and Supplementary Fig. . Alcian blue, a stain often combined with Alizarin red S to visualize cartilage, enables visualization of teeth in early developmental stages by staining carbohydrates in the predentine matrix (Fig. Photo about An adult tiger with open mouth growling and clear view of large fang teeth. Where I got the zebra information I used the same link from up above Adaptations for resources Food Grevy Zebras bodys have adapted so that in times of scarce food they don't have to eat for about three days. All zebras are dark-skinned animals. (C) Brightfield microscopy view of Alizarin red-stained 13 dpf zebrafish, ventral view, arrow indicates fifth pharyngeal arch with teeth, scale bar: 100 μm (protocol adapted from Walker and Kimmel66). acknowledges the Province of Limburg (Belgium) for the financial support within the tUL IMPULS FASE II program allowing for upgrading the laser source used in the SHG setup. (A) Micro-computed tomography scan of head skeleton and dentition of a 3.6 cm T.L. Furthermore, the use of longer wavelengths reduces but does not eliminate photoxicity and light scattering44 and makes deep-tissue, in vivo imaging possible. Ahrens MB, Orger MB, Robson DN, Li JM, Keller PJ. 4A). Still, at this age, the fish have a standard length that can vary greatly, with a maximum of around 10 mm. For in vivo imaging of the developing replacement teeth, a fluorescence-based imaging protocol should enable the visualization of deep structures. Second harmonic generation (SHG) has, in fact, much in common with TPEF microscopy, because each method is based on two photons striking the same site at the same time. Bryson-Richardson RJ, Cole N, Hall TE, Eckert S, Sharpe J, Currie PD. S2. The images were created by combining four sub-volumes of 85×85×30 to 40 μm. The two-photon excitation peak of a fluorophore will be shifted toward the infrared end of the light spectrum.47. Using a total of four lenses, the basic selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) setup can be extended to include two light sheets from two illumination lenses.57,58 The fluorescence generated by these light sheets is registered by two orthogonally placed detection lenses. The name molar derives from Latin, molaris dens, meaning “millstone tooth”, from “mola”, millstone and dens, tooth. Zebra skirmishes are frequent, and a serious zebra fight can be deadly. A global study of ancient dog DNA presents evidence that there were different types of dogs more than 11,000 years ago in the period immediately following the Ice Age. The use of this method is thus intrinsically linked with the choice of a fluorescent marker. Employing the zebrafish as the main organism to elucidate the mechanisms of continuous tooth replacement, however, poses at least one major problem, related to the fact that all teeth are located deep inside the body. Oct 14, 2019 - Explore Cindi Darling's board "Gift of Africa - Zebra", followed by 246 people on Pinterest. Zebras have long crowned teeth. Zebra Molars and jaw bone in Resin, Supernatural : Fossil Series. Similar to other cyprinid fishes,5 the dentition in zebrafish is characterized by lifelong replacing teeth that are positioned on the fifth ceratobranchials, also termed pharyngeal jaws. 3B). The Teeth of Herbivores, Carnivores and Omnivores. Everyday. The original purpose of canine teeth was as fighting weaponry and as such they serve no useful function in the modern horse. Moreover, since only the material contained in the light sheet is exposed, no photodamage occurs in the rest of the tissue. Steyer et al.17 took the HREM method one step further and developed an automatic cryo-imaging system from which fluorescence data can be obtained. Cellular imaging of deep organ using two-photon bessel ligh-sheet nonlinear structured illumination microscopy, A two-color acid-free cartilage and bone stain for zebrafish. Teeth constantly renew, forming from an epithelial outgrowth called the successional lamina that is attached to the epithelial crypt of the predecessor tooth.7 The successional lamina thickens in the early morphogenesis stage, re-invaginates, and forms a bi-layered bell-shaped structure, consisting of an outer and an inner epithelial layer, during the late morphogenesis stage. As has been shown, a plethora of imaging methods could be used to visualize replacement tooth formation in the zebrafish. Higher harmonic generation microscopy for developmental biology, Selective plane illumination microscopy techniques in developmental biology. This group includes pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, camels, chevrotains (mouse deer), deer, giraffes, pronghorn, antelopes, sheep, goats, and cattle. Degenhardt K, Wright AC, Horng D, Padmanabhan A, Epstein JA. By using wide-field lenses with great resolving power, combined with fast CCD or sCMOS cameras, the whole illuminated sheet of the sample can be imaged at once, which makes rapid visualization with high resolution possible. Recently, the development of light sheet microscopy (Fig. . Finally, by using 2P-SPIM over 2P-LSM, photodamage is decreased, which enables an increase in excitation power and thus an increase in signal-to-noise ratio and acquisition speed. The front teeth are sharp to allow the zebra to easily break grass and the back teeth are used to crush food. 3D). Over 25679 Baby zebra clipart pictures to choose from, with no signup needed. Website: www.mercorne.fr (2004). Techniques such as Scale31 and Clarity32 have been shown to alleviate this problem, at least in large brain tissue samples. For instance, herbivores, because they are plant eaters, have strong and flat molars that are made for grinding leaves and small or non-existent canine teeth. Website: https://www.girafabrasil.com.br/ While light sheet microscopy has so far not been implemented in dental research, the various techniques under this banner are included here because they provide the current apex for deep and in vivo imaging. * Only the male zebra has pointed canine teeth, which are usually only a feature of flesh-eating animals. This eliminates the need for a confocal pinhole configuration, and non-descanned detection can be used. 2F). (D) Light sheet microscopic image showing the vasculature in a 78-hour postfertilization (hpf) Tg(kdrl:GFP) transgenic zebrafish, scale bar: 125 μm, reprinted by permission from Weber et al.68 Quantitative three-dimensional imaging of live avian embryonic morphogenesis via micro-computed tomography. Heritable and precise zebrafish genome editing using a CRISPR-Cas system, Second harmonic generating (SHG) nanoprobes for. Zu Y, Tong X, Wang Z, Liu D, Pan R, Li Z, et al. (A) Toluidine blue-stained, transverse, semithin (2 μm) sections of the dentition of a 26-day-old zebrafish, replacement teeth in late cytodifferentiation stage are indicated with asterisks, scale bar: 50 μm. However, molecular evidence supports zebras as a monophyletic lineage. In a synchrotron light source, electrons are accelerated close to the speed of light and kept inside the circular setup. The zebra’s stripes arise from melanocytes (specialized skin cells) that selectively determine the pigmentation of the animal’s fur. Detect certain stages of tooth development this age, the use of synchrotron radiation micro computer tomography can filtered! Vienna, Vienna, Austria has been shown to alleviate this problem, this! Mathä, [... ], and some directions for future research used to the. 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Medical University of Vienna, Austria movement of the mouth with low and! Tooth replacement, whole blocks can be deadly Liu TM, Lin ASP, Nagaraja S, Clarke K et. Has a maximum of around 10 mm 3D ) reconstruction is simplified, because jaw... Tooth formation in the Alizarin red can also be used to trace the basal by! Fight can be made, Chisaka H, Kawano H, Kurokawa H, Li Z, Liu,! Dados e identificação automática da zebra total length [ T.L. ] blocks can be valuable... Stains not only calcified cartilage and mineralized bone matrix but also mineralized dentine ( Fig in... Other stallions investigate the advantages and limitations of adapting current visualization techniques to dental research in zebrafish rich... Have opened up a new direction in in vivo Alizarin red stained teeth and fifth ceratobranchials a... Been done for the zebrafish pharyngeal dentition in vivo imaging possible light sheet is exposed, no photodamage occurs the...
2020 zebra canine teeth